StatLit Papers
Milo Schield, Editor   02/10/19

Authors Popular StatLit News Authors-Academic Statistical Literacy Numeracy Statistical Reasoning



Featured Listing.  Confounding and Cornfield: Back to the Future by Milo Schield  2018 ICOTS

These web-accessible articles are relevant to the teaching of statistical literacy. They consider fundamental questions in statistical education that involve using statistical associations in observational data (rather than random assignment in experiments) to argue for causal connections.

"a clear understanding ... of statistical issues in observational data is needed for statistical practice in the real world."  Stroup et al,

Teaching Statistical Principles Using Epidemiology..., The American Statistician, Feb 2004. P. 77.


New Papers Listed in 2019 by month added. (Year is when paper was published)

02 Generating Ranks and Percentiles from Data using Excel: Function vs Command.  Schield. Short paper (2019, 5p).

02 Printing 6up pages two-up on Letter in Word.  Schield (2019, 1p)

02 Excerpts by page from Pearl's "The Book of Why".  Schield (2019; 5p)

01 Three Graphs; Same Data.  Three Different Stories by Milo Schield.  Short paper (1 page)

01 Pomona Student PAC Evaluations (1999).  Compiled in 2003 from Pomona data by Milo Schield (2 pages)
01 Commentary: Diet Top Risk for Early Death.   Schield commentary. (2 pages)

01 Google 2018 Search Results for Phrase Statistical Literacy.  Compiled by Milo Schield

01 Amazon 2018 Search Results for Phrase Statistical Literacy.  Compiled by Milo Schield


New Papers Listed in 2018 by month added. (Year is when paper was published)

11 Why 25% of `Voter Polls are Wrong.  Schield CTC 12/2018.  Slides

11 Chance of Winning.  Nate Silver 2014. Extract

11 Data Visualization and Statistical Literacy: Table of Contents.  Edited by Prodromou  3/2017.   [Statistical literacy by Jane Watson]

10 Increasing Disparity: the Scanlan Effect.   Schield NNN 2018 Annual Meeting.  Slides

10 Excel Date-Based Charts: Line vs. XY.  10/2018 Schield Research

08 Schield inducted as a Fellow by the American Statistical Association.  JSM 2018.

08 Statistical Literacy and the Lognormal Distribution by Milo Schield 2018 ASA JSM  Slides  Data 

07 Confounding and Cornfield: Back to the Future by Milo Schield 2018 ICOTS.  Slides  Appendix. "Cornfield's minimum effect size is one of the greatest contributions of statistics to human knowledge alongside the Central limit theorem and Fisher's use of random assignment to statistically control for pre-existing confounders." "To change the future, we need to go back to when Jerome Cornfield argued that smoking caused cancer." "Our unwillingness to talk about observational causation, confounding and strength of evidence is arguably the primary reason our students' see little value in the introductory statistics normally taught in Stat 101." "We need to teach multivariate statistics, confounding and the Cornfield conditions so students will appreciate statistics."

05 Review: The Book of Why: The New Science of Cause and Effect -- by Judea Pearl and Dana Mackenzie. (5/2018)   Summary    Index-OCR

05 Review: Observation and  Experiments: by Paul Rosenbaum (11/2017). Summary + TOC

05 Why is road safety better under driving impairment due to both marijuana and alcohol, than each separately? ASA JSM.  R. Shanmugam, R. Tripathi, K. Singh

05 Seven Habit of Highly Numerate People  by Doug Berdie.  Minneapolis Star and Tribune (2018)

05 Twenty-Five Most Influential Psychological Experiments by Kirsten Frescoe (2016)

05 Schoolbook Simplification and Its Relation to the Decline in SAT-Verbal Scores.  Hayes, Wolfer and Wolfe, Cornell U.  AERA (1996)

04 Milo Schield selected as ASA Fellow. (2018) Cynthia Schield earns ACBL Life Master.   Prokop Schield excelled in Cyber Security.

03 Response to US State Dept. Request for Information on "“Data Literacy, Analysis, & Visualizati1on Workshops” by Quant-Fluent: Marc Isaacson and Milo Schield.

03 Introduction to Statistical Literacy by Milo Schield.  2018 Gartner Conference.  Plano, TX.  Slides

03 Make calculus and statistics a part of the Core by Robert Tang.   Colombia Spectator. 
     "Without statistical literacy, we become prone to making naive judgments from limited evidence,
     and it becomes impossible to engage critically with facts, theories, predictions, and conclusions."
03 Thirty Best Data Science Books.

03 Data Literacy and Statistical Literacy  Slides by Milo Schield at the Gartner 2018 Data and Analytics Summit, Plainview TX.    

02 ASA Fellow Schield Nominated by Carl Lee.  CV  Citations  Supporting letters by John Bailer, Danny Kaplan, Herb Weisberg, Chris Wild and Jeff Witmer.

02 Causal INSIGHTS INSIDE for data mining to fight data tsunami and confounding by Jan Hajek (2004, Netherlands)

02 CUPM Recommendations: The First 40 Years by Lynn Steen (1998, 35 pages)

02 Statistical Tools and Statistical Literacy: The Case of The Average  by Iddo Gal (1994) in Teaching Statistics.   Obtained from Gal's Research-Gate page

02 Schield Papers: Citations.  As of Feb 2018.    Schield StatLit Highlights for 2017          2018 Schield Complete Curriculum Vitae (13 pages)

02 Statistical Literacy and the Log-Normal Distribution. Title and Abstract by Milo Schield. Proposed for 2018 ASA JSM.

01 Why the Father of Modern Statistics Didn’t Believe Smoking Caused Cancer by Ben Christopher (2016).[No mention of Cornfield.  Ed.]

01 Confounding.  Wikipedia entry as of Jan 2018.



New Papers Listed in 2017 by month added. (Year is when paper was published)

11 Schield Papers: Citations.  As of November 2017.

10 Persuading with Numbers by Sue Hum.  TOC and Introduction.

10 Mathematics is about the WorldTable of Contents and chapter summaries.  Robert E. Knapp. 

10 National Numeracy Network Annual Meeting @ Barnard College.

     NNN Board Discussion Items by Milo Schield, VP.         Slides: Levels of Numeracy slides.     Grammar: The Heart of Numeracy slides.

09 Teaching Logistic Regression using OLS.  ASA Proceedings Section Statistical Education (2017) by Milo Schield  Slides  Data

09 Simpson's Paradox: A Data Set and Discrimination Case Study Exercise (2014) by Stan Taylor and Amy Mickel  JSE  Data   Documentation

08 Variation: 'Explained By' vs. 'Caused By' Using Excel By Milo Schield  Research paper

08 Augsburg College: Schield's Annual Report By Milo Schield  (2016-2017)

06 GAISE 2016 promotes Statistical Literacy by Milo Schield   SERJ Special Statistical Literacy Issue (2017).

06 Statistical Tools and Statistical Literacy: The Case of the Average by Iddo Gal (1994). Teaching Statistics 2007. From ResearchGate

06 Statistical Literacy for Decision Makers: Table of Contents by Milo Schield

06 Log-normal product of Normal Frequency distribution and Log-Normal Severity Distribution by Milo Schield

06 Median of Log-Normal given Mean and Std.  Deviation by Milo Schield

06 Classifying Associations into ABC by Milo Schield    Association-Causation Survey    Schield placement

06 My "Unsung Hero": The Little Engine that Could.   Alive+Kickin VoiceOver by Milo Schield.   Document  Audio

05 Statistical Literacy: slides.  Invited presentation at Field's Institute's Center for Math Education by Milo Schield. Announcement 4/29/2017.
05 Helping English Language Learners Navigate Probability Vocabulary and Concepts. USCOTS 2017.  Amy Wagler and Larry Lesser  Slides

05 National Numeracy Network NNN Budget Proposal by VP Milo Schield

05 Tom Burnham's Accomplishments: 1995-2014.  By Milo Schield
05 ISI Mission and Objectives 2017ISI Mission and Objectives 2016.

05 Dialogue: moving students from reference to critical data literacy. A Skit. Data librarians.

05 Six Types Of Analyses Every Data Scientist Should Know by Smith (2013).  One page summary by Schield
05 Student Survey: of Novak's Book: Business as a Vocation.  Augsburg student in Key 490.  Schield is the instructor.

04 Using a common statistical test (p-values) all wrong.  Interview with ASA Ron Wasserstein. Retraction Watch
04 Research Gate Total Citations of Selected Statistical Educators by Others. Tabulated by Milo Schield

04 Creating Funnel Charts in Excel 2013 by Milo Schield   Demo   Data

03 Steen 2015 Obituaries: St. Olaf, Minneapolis, MAABiography  1999 QL Bibliography [Created webpage for Lynn Steen)

03 Steen (1990): On the Shoulders of Giants. National Academy of Science; National Academy Press.

03 Steen (1998): CUPM -- The First 40 Years

03 Lynn Steen: Leadership by Example. A Summary by Joel Cuningham (2013). Journal of Mathematics Education at Teachers College.

03 QR for College Graduates: A Complement to the Standards.  CUPM 1994

03 CUPM 1971: Preparation for Graduate work in StatisticsUndergraduate Statistics without Calculus.

03 Does Everybody Need to Study Algebra?  Steen (1992)  Mathematics Teacher

03 Heeding the Call for Change Suggestions for Curricular Action.  Linda R. Sons, Chair. (1994). MAA CUPM.

03 Mathematics and Democracy: The Case for Quantitative Literacy.  Executive Editor Lynn Steen (2001).  NCED   Full textEpilogue

03 Calculus for a New Century: A Pump, Not a Filter.  Lynn Steen, Editor (1987) MAA. National Resource Council.

03 Why Numeracy Matters. Editors: Bernie Madison and Lynn Steen (2003).  NCED.

03 Foundations of Mathematics: Unsolvable Problems by Lynn Steen (1975). Science, AAAS

03 On Being a Mathematical Citizen: The Natural NExT Step.  Lynn Steen (2007).  MAA 9th Leitzel Lecture.

03 Analysis 2000 : Challenges and Opportunities.  Lynn Steen (2000)

03 Reflections on Mathematical Patterns, Relationships, and Functions.  Steen (1998) Minnesota K-12 Mathematics Framework, SciMath-MN

03 A Conversation about Quantitative Literacy.  Bernie Madison and Lynn Steen interview each other.  Numeracy (2009)

03 Steen (2000) reviews Dewdney: A Mathematical Mystery Tour.   Notices of the AMS

03 Facing Facts: Achieving Balance in High School Mathematics.  Lynn Steen (2007)  Mathematics Teacher

03 How Mathematics Counts by Lynn Steen (2007)  ASCD.

03 [16 more papers by Lynn Steen added to that need to be entered here]

03 Schield Sample Bios by Length  (2016)

03 Downs Syndrome by Birth Order and Mother's Age by Milo Schield Slides    PPTX   March 20, 2017

03 Mathematics and Numeracy: Two Literacies, One Language by Lynn Steen (2001

02 Statistical Significance: A simple sufficient condition for Skew2 by Milo Schield. Research Paper.

02 Updating the GAISE College Report: A Survey.  Michelle Everson (2015), Chair. ASA.

01 Evaluating Some Popular Introductory Statistics Textbooks  by Halvorsen, Lubecke, Whittinghill, Yates and McKenzie". ASA JSM Fall 2016

01 Correlation analysis: influence of 3rd variable on R^2 and R(Y,X1|X2) by Milo Schield (2017)

01 Evaluating Some Popular Introductory Applied Statistics Textbooks by Halvorsen et al. (2016)  ASA

01 Offering Stat 102: Social Statistics for Decision Makers by Milo Schield.  IASE Roundtable, Berlin.


New Papers Listed in 2016 (By month added. Year is when paper was published)

12 Student Survey Results for MIS264 D1 Fall 2016.  Stat 102 versus Stat 101 Course Compare. By Milo Schield, Augsburg College. Fall 2016

12 Excel2013: Create centered stacked 100% bar charts for ordinal data with even & odd # choices.  By Milo Schield   Results 

12 Effect size really does matter — Jeffrey Witmer, Oberlin College   ASA JSM Fall 2016
12 Type & Quality of Graphs Used in the ASA/NCTM Annual Poster Competition (2013-2016) by Symanzik, Robbins and Heiberger.  ASA JSM Fall 2016.

12 Student Ratings of the Utility of Key Concepts in Introductory Statistics by Rossi Hassad ASA/JSM Fall, 2016, Mercy College, Dobbs Ferry, New York,

12 Students’ performance and attitudes towards a flipped classroom for introductory statistics. Carl Lee, Central Michigan U., Mt. Pleasant, MI ASA/JSM

12 Incorporating Visual Literacy Standards in an Introductory Statistics Course. Jill Young, Claudia Ruediger. SE Missouri State U., Cape Girardeau, MO ASA/JSM

12 P-Values and the Likelihood Principle by Andrew Neath, ASA/JSM Fall 2015.   Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL.

12 The Evaluation of a Pedagogical Tool for Quantitative Literacy by Gerald Iacullo, ASA/JSM Fall 2016.   Berkeley College, NY, NY

12 Do the Write Thing: Bolstering Student Comprehension in Introductory Statistics by Bernard L. Dillard, ASA/JSM 2016.  Fashion Institute of Technology.

12 Restructuring Introductory Statistics Courses to Free Class Time ... by Bonnie Moon, Craig Johnson and Ryan Cromar.  ASA/JSM Fall 2016  BYU-Idaho

12 Why Election Polls Are Often Wrong.    Schield CTC Slides.   Why Clinton Lost (Trump Won) Slides CTC.  Exit Poll Data.   Calculate Chance of Winning

10 Offering STAT 102: Social Statistics for Decision Makers. Schield IASE Roundtable in Berlin. July, 2016.

10 Augsburg Student Evaluations of STAT 102: Social Statistics for Decision Makers. Schield ASA JSM. Aug, 2016

09 Surveys and Margin of Error by Milo Schield  Technical Paper  Slides     Classifying Studies by Schield Technical Paper  Slides

09 Politics & Policies: What can statistics tell us?  API-205 by Deborah Hughes Hallett 2016.  Harvard Kennedy. Course Full syllabus  Syllabus (topics only)


09 1999 Survey form  Statistical Literacy Topics: What should be taught?  Survey form by Milo Schield

09 1999 Slides Statistical Literacy. Talk by Milo Schield at Univ. of Wollongong, Australia  

09 1998 Slides Evidential Statistics. Talk by Milo Schield at ASA JSM.   

09 1998 Slides Teaching Introductory Statistics to College Students. Talk by Milo Schield at Univ. of Xian, China   

09 1998 Slides Probability: Classical and Bayesian. Talk by Milo Schield at Univ. of Northern Iowa


08  Student Survey Results  by Milo Schield, Augsburg College MIS 264 D3 Fall 2016 PDF

08  Logistic Regression: Comparing MLE with OLS1 (with 'nudge') by Milo Schield Technical Paper Fall 2016  Slides  Demo   Excel

08  Q/L and Statistical Literacy by Milo Schield  Panel presentation MAA MathFest Fall 2016.  Slides  Audio

07  Confounding -- A Big Idea  by Milo Schield ASA JSM Fall 2016.   Slides   Audio

07  IASE Roundtable:  Schield Workshop.   Day 2: Slides 2A  2B  2C.    Audio: 2A(Social Statistics)   2B(Confounding)  2C (Inference)   July 2016

06  2016 IASE Roundtable Detailed Schedule by Milo Schield
06  Excerpts from "What Should [College] Graduates Know?" by N. Lemann (2016) Dean Emeritus Columbia.  Excerpted by M. Schield.

06  Statistical Literacy at Augsburg by Milo Schield (2016)

06  Modelling statistically significant Skewness in samples from a Normal Population (Excel 2013).  Output   Milo Schield (2016)

06  Sampling distribution of skewness from a Normal population. (Excel 2013, n=10): Output   Milo Schield
06  Averaging Log-Normal Losses as a function of the number of losses.  Output  Milo Schield (2016)

05  Sum of K Identical Log-Normals (Excel 2013): Output   Milo Schield

05  Product of Two Random Variables: Normal and Log-Normal Output;   Both log-Normal Output.  Milo Schield (2016)

04  Treating Ordinal Scales as Ordinal Scales. Thomas R. Knapp  1993 Nursing Research

04  Treating Ordinal Scales as Interval Scales: An Attempt to Resolve the Controversy. Thomas R. Knapp  1990 Nursing Research

04  2016 JSM Schield-selected papers and sessions

04  2016 JSM Schedule for Sessions sponsored by Section on Statistical Education (single line headings on a single page)

04  2016Q1: Research Gate Citation statistics for selected statistical educators.   2016Q1: Research-Gate Citation statistics for Schield papers.
03  Show smaller SE for stratified than for simple random sample by Milo Schield (2016)

03  Use Excel to create Ranks and Percentiles from data by  Milo Schield (2016)

01  Big Ideas for Introductory Statistics by Milo Schield.  Paper proposal (Title and abstract) submitted for 2016 JSM

01  Logistic Regression Using Excel by Milo Schield.  Virtual poster proposal for 2016 eCOTS   [Rejected]

01  Evidential Statistics by Milo Schield.  MSMESB 1998

01  Mean-Median-Compare in Excel by Milo Schield.  Excel (*.xlsx) worksheet 2016


New Papers Listed in 2015 (By month added)

12  Statistics in Economics by Peter Holmes.  1987    OCR version

12  What Does "100% Juice" Mean? Exploring Adult Learners Informal Knowledge of Percent by Ginsburg, Gal and Schuh (1995) NCAL Technical Report TR95-06

12  Statistical Tools and Statistical Literacy: The Case of the Average by Iddo Gal (1994) Teaching Statistics, 17(3), 97-99.  Published online in 2002.

12  Adult's statistical literacy: meanings, components, responsibility (with discussion and response) by Iddo Gal (2002) International Statistical Review

12  Using Geometry to Visualize ... Correlation and Regression by Kyle Nickodem, Ernest C. Davenport, Ph.D.,  Qinjun Wang and Steven Culpepper, Ph.D.

12  Lynn Steen Eulogy by Milo Schield.  2015

11  Statistical Literacy, QR and QL by Milo Schield.  1997 Working paper

11  Median Overlap, Misclassification and R-squared by Milo Schield.  1997 Working paper

11  Working Paper: Review of Fischbein-Schnarch by Milo Schield.  1997 RSSCSE. Suggested by Anne Hawkins.

11  2015 GAISE Update: Survey    Michelle Everson, Committee Chair.  2015

11  IASE 2016 Roundtable: Workshop Proposal    Milo Schield.  2015  Accepted.

10  US 2015 Wholesale Inventory-Sales Ratios: Four Graphs    Collected by Milo Schield.  2015 

10  Modeling Logistic Regression using MLE in Excel 2013.  Milo Schield 2015.   1A: Output Slides Input

10  Modeling Logistic Regression using OLS in Excel 2013.  Milo Schield 2015.  1A: Output Slides Input.   1C: Output Slides Input

10  Confounding variables in epidemiologic studies: Basics and Beyond by Farin Kamangar in the 2012 Archives of Iranian Medicine.

10  1928 Moccasin Yearbook Morris Agricultural School in Morris MN.  Wilbur Schield

09  Statistical Inference for Managers  Milo Schield.  2015 ASA JSM  Slides

09  Current Landscape of Business Analytics and Data Science by Amy Phelps and Kathryn Szabat.  2015 ASA JSM   slides

09  Prevalence of Statistical Terms in the Harvard Business Review.  Milo Schield (Data only).

09  Data Science: Statistics or Computer Science  Timothy Kyng, Anyse Bilgin and Busayasachee Puang-Ngern.  2015 IASE Slides

08  Editorial [banning NHST] by David Trafimow and Michael Marks in Basic and Applied Social Psychology [BASP], 37:1–2, 2015

08  Planning an Academic Analytics Program by Amy Phelps, Szabat and Knape.  2015 USCOTS   Slides

07  New web page for Jerome Cornfield Added July 19, 2015.

07  US Treasury Income Mobility Study  US Internal Revenue Service 2008.

07  Chocolate Faster Weight-Loss Hoax by John Bohannon "I Fooled Millions Into Thinking Chocolate Helps Weight Loss. Here's How"

07  Statistical Modelling: Two Cultures by Leo Breiman in 2001 Statistical Science.

07  Problems with Using the Normal Distribution – and Ways to Improve Quality and Efficiency of Data Analysis by Eckhard Limpert and Werner Stahel.  PLOS One 2011.

07  Log-normal Distributions across the Sciences: Keys and Clues by Eckhard Limpert, Werner Stahel and Markus Abbt.  2001 Bioscience Vol. 51 #5, P341-352 and Errata.

07  The Lognormal Distribution (Excerpts: P 12 and 111-113) by Aitchison and Brown 1957

06  Lynn Steen Obituary June 21, 2015    Schield Eulogy to Lynn Steen    Added content to the Lynn Steen page.

06  Statistical Errors by Regina Nuzzo in Nature Vol 506 Feb 13, 2014  Pdf

06  Aliens cause Global Warming by Michael Crichton (2001) CalTech'   Pdf    Rejoinder by Alden Griffin 2011.

06  Your Demand for Statistical Proof is Racist by Candice Lanius. Cyborgology 1/12/2015."demand for statistical proof is blatant distrust of someone’s lived experience"

06  Are You Smarter than an 8th Grader by Nicholas Kristof NY Times Apr 25, 2015.  "Statistical literacy should be part of every citizen’s tool kit"   Pdf

06  RSS: Call for Grant Ideas by Royal Statistical Society (RSS UK).  Jun 9, 2015.  Suggestions due by end of July 2015.   Pdf

05  What is Wrong with THE Introductory Statistics Course  by Milo Schield.  2015 USCOTS

05  USCOTS 2015 Statistical Literacy Roundtable: Questions and Answers by Milo Schield

05  Translating Words into Algebra.  Posted at Leeward CC Hawaii 2008

05  A Longitudinal Study of Pupils' Probability Concepts by David Green.  1990 ICOTS.

04  Statisticians: Making our World a Better Place (4.5 minute video) by Milo Schield.  4/2015 USCOTS  6up  1up  Text

04  Comments on Control-Group Dropout in the First HIV-AIDS Drug Trial using AZT by Simon.  EdStat List 2013.

04  2014 Movie Viewings vs. Box-Office Revenues  2/2015 News story

04  Causal-Impact: Estimating Causal Impact in Time Series by Google 2014. 

04  Schield's Nomination Packet for 2015 USCOTS Lifetime Achievement Award by Lesser, Kaplan and Moreno.  USCOTS 2015.   Nomination only

04  Schield Submission for Judea Pearl's Causality Prize for Best Course on Causality by Schield  2/2015 

03  Coincidences are more likely than you think: The Birthday Paradox. by Carla Santos and Cristina Dias, PT.  Slides 7/2014. Statistics & Math Sciences Workshop

03  NAS/NRC Assessing the Reproducibility of Scientific Results workshop agenda Feb 26-27/2015 in Washington DC.   Results

03  Of P-Values and Bayes: A Modest Proposal by Steven N. Goodman (2001) Epidemiology.  [transition from P-value to minimum Bayes factor]     Probable Cause by Selke

03  Calibration of p Values for Testing Precise Null Hypotheses by Sellke, Bayarri, and Berger 2001 American Statistician  55,1 p. 62-71.  1987 Berger-Selke

03  Difficulty Replicating Stereotype Threat and Women's Math Performance at Replication Index 2015

03  Amazing Coincidences [Author unknown]  Summarized from web in 2015.

03  Seven Wild Historical Coincidences [Author unknown]  Summarized from web in 2015.

03  Workshop Agenda: Reproducibility of Scientific Results NSA/NRC Washington DC.  Speakers include John Ioannidis and Mark Liberman.   Overview.

03  Why Black English Does Not Add Up by Joan Countryman (1987).  Review of Eleanor Wilson's "Twice as Less: Black English and the Performance of Black Students".

03  Twice as Less by Milton Chen (1987).  Review of Eleanor Wilson's "Twice as Less: Black English and the Performance of Black Students".

03  Eleanor Wilson: RIP 1927-2008  Author of "Twice as Less: Black English and the Performance of Black Students".   2008 Washington Post obituary

03  Eleanor Wilson: RIP 1927-2008  Author of "Twice as Less: Black English and the Performance of Black Students".   2008 Hawthorne School obituary

03  Download Twice as Less (2nd ed.) by Eleanor Wilson

02  Statistical Significance Shortcuts by Milo Schield.  Stat-Chat slides   2/24/2015   Papers:  Chi-sq   Relative Risk  RR Calculator

02  Schield talks by location. Talks outside the US.

02  Schield's JSM Sessions involving Statistical Literacy.  Presenters by year.

02  The metaphysical and epistemic status of Chance.   E-mail from Schield to William Briggs, February 2015.

02  From epidemiological association to causation by Wakeford and McElvenny in Occupational Medicine 57:464-465. doi:10.1093/occmed/kqu088

02  Citations involving Statistical Literacy as of December 2014 by Google Scholar

01  The Grenada Conjectures by Milo Schield. Slides from a talk delivered at the University of Grenada on January 18, 2001.

01  The Peter Holmes Prize for Best Article in Teaching Statistics in 2013Teaching Statistics.

01  The Impact of Computers on School Statistics Teaching by Peter Holmes.  ICOTS 1986

01  Meet Common Core Standards with Statistics. Posted by Jeff Wyman on November 13th, 2014. Copy

01  1964 US Surgeon General's Report AP News.

01  2002 History of Confounding by Jay P. Vandenbroucke.  From The History of Epidemiology.  SPM47, p. 216-224. [Excellent review of Cornfield's contributions]

01  Social Psychologist Stapel fakes data.  2011  Gonzales blog.

01  Statistical Literacy Guide by Paul Bolton.  2010 UK House of Commons. Web

01  UNECE Making Data Meaningful: Guide to Statistical Literacy.  By Vitor Isakev. 2011 Slides.

01  UNECE Making Data Meaningful: Part 4 Statistical Literacy.  2011.  [Includes a paragraph on this website]

01  SIGMAA-Quantitative Literacy 2014 Newsletter. Estimation by Grawe; Reality Math by Sulock; Math+Social Justice by Karaali/Khadjavi; What next by Piercey.

01  Pearl 2015 Causality Award: Call for Nominations.  By ASA


New Papers Listed in 2014 (By month added)

12  Vast Majority of statistical analysis will not be performed by statisticians June 14, 2013.   Simply Statistics.

12  Simpson's Paradox in Psychological Science: a practical guide by Kievit, Frankenhuis, Waldorp and Borsboom. Frontiers in Psychology. V 4; Article 513,  Aug 2013

12  Statistical Literacy Explained by Paul Hewson in Teaching Statistics, p. 982.   Feb 1. 2013

12  Headlines in a Mathematically-Literate World by Ben Orlin in the Huffington Post,  Dec 4, 2013.  Checkout Orlin's blog:

12  RSS GetStats Statistical Literacy Campaign and Initiatives. 2014 Royal Statistical Society. Also: Statistical Knowledge, Board Members, Importance of Statistics.

12  2013 ASA News: Causality in Statistics Education Award 2013 ASA JSM.

12  2013 AMSTAT: Causality in Statistics Education Award 2013 ASA JSM.

12  Big Data and Big Business: Should Statisticians Join In?  By David Walker and Kaiser Fung.  2013 Significance Magazine

12  SIGMAA-QL 2013 Newsletter.   Bennet: Writing a math book for the general public.

12  Bayes: Why Bother by Thomas Louis, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg SPH. Slides

12  Single World Intervention Graphs (SWIGS) by James Robbins and Thomas Richardson. NCSU. July 2013.  Created by Miguel Hernán. Slides

11  Causal Impact: Estimating Causal Effects in Time Series. Google 11/2014

11  SERJ: Call for papers on Statistical Literacy. 2014 Statistics Education Research Journal.

08  Simpson's Paradox (Problem 30) in Classic Problems in Probability by Prakash Gorroochurn 2012 Wiley.

08  Top 30 Learning Goals for Introductory Sociology by Caroline Persell in Teaching Sociology 2010  One-Page List

08  Social Science Reasoning and Quantitative Literacy Learning Goals by Susan Caulfield & Caroline Persell in Teaching Sociology 2006  One-Page List

07  Odyssey: A Journey to Lifelong Statistical Literacy  Schield ICOTS 2014  Slides

05  Two Big Ideas for Teaching Big Data: Coincidence and Confounding  by Milo Schield 2014 ECOTS Webinar.  Slides.   Panel slides

04  Teaching Big Data by Sigman, DSI Magazine

01  Dynamic Visualization of Economic Indicators by Katherine Jenny Thompson and Mark E. Wallace. U.S. Census Bureau.   ASA 2013.

01  Fusion and causal analysis in big marketing data sets by Igor Mandel  ASA 2013.

01  Reality Checks for a Distributional Assumption: The Case of “Benford’s Law” by William Goodman  ASA 2013.

01  Challenging Statistical Claims in the Media Course and Gender Effects, Rose Martinez-Dawson ASA 2013 Abstract   Audio  1up  6up


New Papers Listed in 2013 (By month added)

09  Statistics Education: Steadfast or Stubborn? by Milo Schield ASA 2013. Audio  1up  6up

09  Getting to know your variables: A critical element of a statistical analysis by Jane Miller  ASA 2013. Abstract   Audio  1up   6up

09  Key Components of Numeracy Infusion Course for Higher Education by Esther Wilder ASA 2013.  Handout  Abstract  1up    6up

09  Responsible Statistics: Using Statistics to Shape Public Opinion (6up slides) by Andrew Nelson  12/2011.  6up

08  ASA President's Message: Statistical Literacy and the 2013 Year of International Statistics by Ruth Carver. 2012.

07  David Moore Page at with numerous publications.

07  Anne Hawkins Response to New Pedagogy and New Content by David Moore. ISR, 1997. "I would argue in favour of 'Statistical Literacy for All'..."

06  Statistical Literacy of Obstetrics- Gynecology Residents by Bretta Anderson, Sterling Williams & Jay Schulkin.  J. of Graduate Medical Education, p 272-275. 6/2013.

05  Display Paired Confidence Intervals using Excel by Milo Schield, 2013.  1up   6up

05  Odysseys2Sense: A Startup Guide by Milo Schield, 2012.  6up  Audio text

05  The Effects of a Course on Statistical Literacy upon Students' Challenges to Statistical Claims made in the Media by Rose Martinez-Dawson.  PhD Thesis. 2010.

05  Bias, Causality, Change, Dichotimization, Likert and Visual Analog Scales, N versus (N-1) Re-visited, To pool or not to pool by Thomas Knapp 2013.

05  Help Yourselves (and the Public) Know the Truth by Victor Cohn in Significance 1999. 

04  Statistical Literacy Serves Police Officers in Many Ways by Irina Soderstrom at Eastern Kentucky Univ.

03  Scientific reproducibility: Begley's Six Rules by Bruce Booth in Forbes: Pharma and Healthcare.  9/26/2012.

03  A New Test for Randomness with Application to Stock Market Index Data by Alicia G. Strandberg and Boris Iglewicz.  ASA JSM 2012.

03  A Closer Look at Air Pollution-Mortality Relationships for California Members of the American Cancer Society Cohort by Lipfert and Young, ASA JSM 2012.

03  Developing a Test of Normality in the Classroom by Jernigan, American Univ., Washington DC.  ASA JSM 2012.

03  Teaching and Learning Confounding in the Health Sciences by Felicity Enders, Miranda Kroehl, John McGready, Rickey Carter.  2012 ASA Proceedings

01  "n"  by Thomas Knapp 2012.
01  Significance Test, Confidence Interval, Both or Neither? by Thomas Knapp 2013.
01  Reinventing Business Statistics: Statistical Literacy for Managers by Milo Schield.  MBAA-Chicago  6up

New Papers Listed in 2012 (By month added)

12   n by Thomas R. Knapp.  Answers to statistical questions involving "How many...?"
       The "Unknown Student" Survey by Zawojewski, Nowakowski and Boruch.  1987 ASA-Proceedings

      Introducing Probability and Statistics into the English Studies Curriculum by Goldberg, Zawojewski and Boruch. 1987 ASA-Proceedings

      Romeo and Juliet: Fate, Chance, or Choice. An English Lesson Using Probability by Zawojewski, Nowakowski and Boruch 1988 Teaching-Statistics

      Coupling Literature and Statistics by Borch and Zawojewski.  1988 Teaching-Statistics

10   How Economic and Social Statistics became the Stepchildren of the Profession by Othmar Winkler, ASA.

10   Teaching Quantitative Reasoning Skills: A Numeracy Infusion Course for Higher Education (NICHE) by Esther Wilder, ASA,  6up Handout

10   How I Created a Trapezoidal Display of Simpson's Paradox, Arjun Tan (Prof Emeritus at Alabama A&M Univ.)

09   Lost: Assessing Student Basic Survival Skills in the Statistical Wilderness Using Real Data   Marc Isaacson, ASA  6up  Abstract

09   How Causal Heterogeneity Influences Statistical Significance in Clinical Trials   Milo Schield, ASA  6up

08   Teaching Quantitative Reasoning Skills: A Numeracy Infusion Course for Higher Education (NICHE), Esther Wilder Abstract 6up Handout

05   Big Data Creates Beguiling Coincidences   Milo Schield  2012 e-COTS video (5 min draft)  6up  Runs.xls     Clusters.xls

03   Statistical Literacy in Film Studies I   Statistical Literacy in Film Studies II   Dick Redfern blog

03   Learning Statistics through Playing Cards   Tom Knapp 2012

03   Using Pearson Correlations to teach or learn statistics   Tom Knapp

03   Random   Tom Knapp

02   Teaching Introductory Statistics and Study Design to Residents in at Teaching Hospital. Lori Lyn Price, Jessica Paulus and Joan Griffith, 2011 ASA JSM

01   Coincidence in Runs and Clusters.   Milo Schield, 2012 MAA    6up   Runs.xls   Clusters.xls   Bday.xls    Recursion.xls


New Papers Listed in 2011 (By month added)

12   Teaching Statistics using the News Media, Paulette Ceesay, 2011 ASA JSM  6up

       Pop-stats books and Statistical Education - Kaiser Fung, New York Univ. 2011 ASA JSM 1up.

       Integrating Quantitative and Financial Literacy - Joseph Ganem, Loyola Univ., Maryland.  2011 ASA JSM  6up

       Learning to Read the Numbers: Critical Literacy and Numeracy in K-8 Classrooms - David and Phyllis Whitin, Wayne State U.2011 ASA JSM  1up

       Assessing Quantitative Reasoning: What Do Freshmen Know? - Ermine Faith Orta, Nandini Kannan and Kimberly Massaro, U. Texas San Antonio. 2011 JSM  6up

10   Teaching Teachers Statistical Literacy Online, Milo Schield 2011 National Numeracy Network Conference 6up

09   Statistics and Clinical Trials: Past, Present and Future - by Herb Weisberg, Correlation Research 2011 ASA JSM  1up
       Teaching the Social Construction of Statistics, Milo Schield 2011 IASE Ireland 6up

       Epidemiological Models and Spotty Statistics by Milo Schield  2011 ISI Dublin 6up

       Describing Quantitative Relationships Using Informal Grammar by Milo Schield 2011 ASA JSM  6up 1up  Appendix  WB1  WB2

06   Statistical Literacy: A New Mission for Data Producers by Milo Schield  Statistical Journal of the IAOS 27 (2011) 173–183

04   Statistics in Society: Three Case Studies by Tom King  2011 Southampton Univ.   Statistical literacy: ‘familiarity with reading and writing data stories’.

       Trout, Catfish and Roach: a simple, amusing explanation as to how we reach our census population estimates.    2009 RSS.   2011 UK Census

03   US Supreme Court Brief on Statistical Significance by Debra McCloskey and Stephen Ziliak 2011

      Comments on Wild-Pfannkuch-Regan-Horton RSS Paper by Milo Schield 2011

02   Education Vision by Royal Statistical Society 2011

      Statistical Literacy Summer Course Online (GST 200 at Augsburg College) by Milo Schield 2011 Annoucement Syllabus

01   Teaching Statistical Literacy using Odyssey2Sense (TM): A Unique Web-Forum by Milo Schield  2011 MAA. 6up   Schield-Copes Odysseys Poster


New Listings in 2010 (By month added)

12   Assessing Students’ Attitudes: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly by Anne Millar and Candace Schau  2010 ASA.

      Why do we study this? Critical Concepts to Retain from Statistics Class by Kathryn Hall and Diane K. Michelson ASA 2010

      Reform and Renewal in the Introductory Statistics Courses by Nancy Leveille, Anna Simmons and Ron Barnes  ASA 2010

      Statistical Inference, Statistics Education, and the Fallacy of the Transposed Conditional by Andy Neath ASA 2010

10   QL across the Curriculum: Integrating Skills from English Composition, Mathematics and Substantive Disciplines, Jane Miller The Educational Forum, 74: 334–46 2010

09   Teaching Statistical Literacy as a Quantitative Rhetoric Course by John Schmit ASA  2010 6up

      Statistical Literacy for Managers: Analyzing Time Series data by Anders and Britt Wallgren ASA 2010  6up

      Numbers in Everyday Life: A Short Course for Adults by Gerald Hahn, Necip Doganaksoy, Ricki Lewis, Jane Oppenlander & Josef Schmee  2010 ASA  6up

      Probability in Decline by Dean Brooks ASA 2010 6up

      The Undetectable Difference: An Experimental Look at the “Problem” of p-Values by Bill Goodman 2010 ASA  6up

      The Social Construction of Rankings by Milo Schield ASA 2010 6up

08   Statistics for All — the Flip Side of Quantitative Reasoning by J. Michael Shaughnessy, NCTM President   2010 NCTM.

07   Using media reports to promote statistical literacy for non-quantitative majors by Stephanie Budgett, Maxine Pfannkuch (NZ). 2010 ICOTS8

       Luring non-quantitative majors into advanced statistical reasoning (and luring statistics educators into real statistics): Nicholson, Ridgway, McCusker. 2010 ICOTS8

       Using a Five Step Framework for interpreting tables and graphs in their contexts: Marian Kemp and Barry Kissane (AU). 2010  ICOTS8

       How we can all learn to think critically about data: Ian Gordon, Sue Finch (AU). 2010 ICOTS8

05   Ad: Statistical Literacy Course Online at Augsburg College.  Milo Schield, Instructor   Syllabus.   Odyssey Introduction

      Interpreting Economic and Social Data: A Foundation of Descriptive Statistics. Othmar Winkler Springer 2009.  Comments:  Keith Ord, Walter Krämer.

04   Association-Causation Problems in News Stories.  Milo Schield, Augsburg College.  ICOTS-8 2010. See Merriam-Webster (1994): Usage of "times".

      Statistical Literacy Survey: Benefits and Attitudes.  Milo Schield. 

03   Interpreting the Cumulative Frequency Distribution of Socio-Economic Data.  Othmar Winkler, Professor emeritus, Georgetown Univ.  ASA 2009.

      Inference From Matched Samples in the 2008 U.S. National Elections. Douglas Rivers and Delia Bailey (YouGov Polimetrix).  ASA 2009.

      Livening Up the Introductory Statistics Course with Non-traditional Media Resources [clickers]. Page Moore, Univ. Arkansas for Medical Sciences. ASA 2009.

      Building Bridges: Making Statistical Issues Accessible to the Biomedical and Translational Researcher. Taylor Pressler, Philip Binkley & Philip Payne. ASA 2009.

      Turning our GAISE toward Departments of Psychology. Patricia Rutledge, Allegheny College. ASA 2009.

      Statistics in the News. Nancy Reid, Univ. of Toronto.  Talk at the Univ. Georgia,  April 2009.  1up slides

02   Which is bigger 250 tonnes or 17%: A tale of salt. Jane Watson and Kim Beswick.  AAMT  2009.

01   SIGMAA-QL 2009 Survey: Quantitative Graduation Requirements at US Four-Year Colleges by Milo Schield at JMM 2010. 6up

      Who's Counting?  Opinion article by Doug Smith in the LA Times (1/31/2010) with comments by Steen and Schield.


New Listings in 2009 (By month added)

12  Quantitative Literacy: An Imperative for America by Bernie Madison. Slides presented at Ohio State 2009.

      On the Importance and Measurement of Pre-Service Teachers' Efficacy to Teach Statistics  2009 ASA Harrell, Pierce, Sorto, Murphy, Lesser and Enders

      The Numbers Guy Index of WSJ Articles: 2006-2009.  

      Developing statistical literacy with students and teachers in the secondary mathematics classroom.  2008 Masters Thesis by Phillip Doyle. Waikato U. NZ. 

      Focus on Basics 2008 9B:  Health & Literacy Partnerships Published by World Education.

11  Numbers in Everyday Life: A Short Course for Adults by Hahn, Doganaksoy, Lewis, Oppenlander and Schmee (2009, Amstat News -- a longer draft)

      Numbers in Everyday Life #1: Introduction by Gerald Hahn and Jane Oppenlander. Union College Academy for Life Long Learning (UCALL, 2008)

      Numbers in Everyday Life #2: Polls in the News by Joseph Schmee UCALL (2008)

      Numbers in Everyday Life #3: Medical and Health Studies by Ricki Lewis UCALL (2008)

      Numbers in Everyday Life #4: Numbers in Business and industry by Necip Doganaksoy UCALL (2008)

      Numbers in Everyday Life #5: Wrap up class by Gerald Hahn UCALL (2008)

10  Quantitative Literacy across the Curriculum by Jane Miller (draft) for Educational Forum

     Statistical Literacy: Knowing What's Wheat and What's Chaff by Chase Brady (2008, Univ West Virginia at Parkersburg) 

09  The Cult of Statistical Significance by Stephen Ziliak and Deirdre McCloskey  2009 ASA  6up   4up

     Spinning Heads and Spinning News: Statistics in the Media by Rebecca Goldin (George Mason U.) 2009 ASA 6up

      Statistical Challenges in Medical Research: What Consumers Need to Know by Ronald R Gauch (Marist College) 2009 ASA  6up

      Distinguishing Association from Causation in Media Headlines by Milo Schield and Robert Raymond  2009 ASA.   6up
      Confound Those Speculative Statistics by Milo Schield  2009 ASA.   6up
05  Survey of Attitudes Toward Statistics: An Exploratory Look by Marjorie Bond 2008 ASA
      Common Issues in SATS Research by Candace Schau 2008 ASA
      Students’ Attitudes Toward Statistics: Are there differences among various majors?  by Rebecca Pierce and Molly Jameson  2008 ASA.
      The Assessment of Quantitative Literacy at a Large Public Institution  by Yvette Nicole Johnson and Jennifer Kaplan  2008 CRUME.
04  Understanding the Difficulty in Teaching Sampling Distribution, Margin of Error and Statistical Inference by Kriska, Fulcomer & Sass 2008 ASA
      Applying Resampling to Analyze the Sensitivity of a Hypothesis Test to Confounding by William Goodman 2008 ASA

03  Statistical Significance of Ranking Paradoxes by Anna Bargigliotti and Jim Greenwell 2009 MAA JMM  6up

02  Numeracy: Assessing Basic Skills and Knowledge by Milo Schield 2009 MAA JMM  6up

     Univ. Texas San Antonio: Quantitative Scholarship - Final Draft    Press release 2009

01  von Mises' Frequentist Approach to Probability by Milo Schield and Tom Burnham 2008 ASA


New Listings in 2008 (By month added)

12  Interpreting the substantive significance of multivariate regression coefficients by Jane Miller 2008 ASA

11  Using Simulation to Teach Statistical Literacy by Marc Isaacson  2008 ASA

10  Just Plain Data Analysis by Gary Klass  2008 ASA

09  Numbers in the News: A Survey by Robert Raymond and Milo Schield 2008 ASA Data6up and 1up

08  Statistical Literacy Skills Survey by Milo Schield, 2008 PKAL-Carleton. 6up slides.

07  Student Attitudes Toward Statistics at Augsburg: 2003-2004 by Milo and Cynthia Schield 2008 ASA

06  Q/L in America: What Kind, How Much and Beyond by Bernie Madison

05  Analyzing Numbers in the News: A Structured Critical-Thinking Approach by Milo Schield, 2008 NNN  6up

04  Using Chance Media to Promote Statistical Literacy by J. Laurie Snell, 1999 ASA

03  Quantitative Literacy in America: What Kind to How Much and Beyond by Bernie Madison, 2008 MAC/QR conference at BMCC

02  Expectations for Statistical Literacy: A Survey Of College Faculty by David Kriska (Walden U.), Mark Fulcomer (Stockton) & Marcia Sass (UMD-NJ) 2007 ASA

01  Including Construction in Quantitative Literacy by Joel Best  2007 MSS


New Listings in 2007 (By month added)

12  Building Statistical Literacy Assessment Tools with the IASE ISLP by Juana Sanchez.  2007 IASE

11  Assessing Students' Statistical Literacy by Stephanie Budgett and Maxine Pfannkuch.  2007 IASE

10  Numbers in the News: A Survey.  Milo Schield (Augsburg College) and Cynthia Schield (Former co-publisher of the Napa County Record)

09  Grammar of Statements Involving "Chance".  Milo Schield (Augsburg College) and Tom Burnham (Cognitive Consulting)

08  Prevarication: Mutual Fund Studies that Distort Investor's Perceptions.  Marshall Schield, President STIR Research (Durango, CO)

06  Quantitative Literacy and School Mathematics: Percentages and Fractions, by Milo Schield, 2007 Wingspread Conference

05  Statistical Literacy: Factual Assessment to Support Hypothetical Thinking by Milo Schield, 2007 IASE Satellite Conference, Portugal

04  What do M&M's, dahlias, soil erosion and data analysis across the curriculum have in common? by Jerry Moreno, 2006 ASA

03  Teaching the Social Construction of Statistics by Milo Schield, 2007 Midwest Sociological Society, Chicago  Slides 4up

02  Expectations for Statistical Literacy: A Comparison among Professions by Kriska, Fulcomer and Sass.  2006 ASA

01  Pedagogical Challenges of Quantitative Literacy by Bernie Madison, President of NNN,  2006 ASA


New Listings in 2006 (By month added)

12  Quirks of Rhetoric: a Quantitative Analysis of Quantitative Reasoning in Student Writing by Neil Lutsky, 2006 ASA

11  News-based Learning and Statistics by Wing K. Fung and Philip L. H. Yu,  2006 ICOTS

10  Percentage Graphs in USA Today Snapshots Online by Schield,  2006 ASA    Slides: 6up

09  Enhancing Statistical Literacy: Enriching Our Society by Katherine Wallman, 1992 Presidential Address, JASA 1993

09  Developing a Compulsory University-wide Statistical Literacy Program by Helen Carter and Catherine Milne 2000  Abstract  Conference

08  How did Teaching Introductory Statistics get to be so Complicated ?!? [slides] Roxy Peck, USCOTS 2005  6up 1up

06  Presenting Confounding Graphically Using Standardization by Milo Schield 2006 Draft for Stats magazine

05  Statistical Literacy Workshop Using a web-based Learning Object by Milo Schield 2006 IASSIST Workshop  Feedback

05  Introduction to an Online Ratio Statement Validator, Burnham and Schield, 2006 IASSIST Workshop

02  Exploring Simpson's Paradox by Larry Lesser NCTM 2001

01  Statistical Literacy Survey Analysis by Milo Schield 2006 ICOTS-7.   6up Slides.

01  Statistical Literacy Survey Results by Milo Schield 2006 IASSIST.

International Statistical Literacy Project (International Association of Statistical Educators)


Enhancing Statistical Literacy: Enriching Our Society by Katherine Wallman, 1992 Presidential Address, JASA 1993

The First R -- For Reasoning by Anne Hawkins (Past Director of the RSS Centre for Statistical Education) 1997

Teaching Statistical Literacy by Dennis Haack in Teaching Statistics, Vol. 1.3, pp 74-76

A Note on Teaching Statistical Literacy by Dennis Haack in Teaching Statistics, Vol. 2.1, pp 22-23

David S. Moore (Past President of the American Statistical Association)

Statistics and Sound Bites: Statistical Literacy and the Internet  1999 US Bureau of the Census

Statistics Among the Liberal Arts  1998 ASA Presidential Address  JASA

Statistical Literacy and Statistical Competence in the 21st Century  1997 ASA JSM (slides)

Statistical Literacy and Statistical Competence in the 21st Century  1998 MSMESB Conference (Abstract)

Statistical Literacy and Statistical Competence in the New Century  2001 IASE Korea (slides)

Lynn Steen (Past President of Mathematics Association of America)

Quantitative Literacy: Why Numeracy Matters for Schools and Colleges. MAA Online

Quantitative Literacy. 2002 Focus, Newsletter of MAA, Feb 2002, Volume 22, #2, pp. 8-9

Reflections on Quantitative Literacy. 2001 PKAL

The New Literacy in "Why Numbers Count"

Why Numbers Count: Quantitative Literacy for Tomorrow's America. MAA 1998

Bernie Madison (Founder of the National Numeracy Network, Past-President of the National Council of Education and the Disciplines)

         Quantitative Literacy: An Imperative for America by Bernie Madison. Slides presented at Ohio State 2009.

Q/L in America: What Kind, How Much and Beyond  by Bernie Madison 2008

Evolution of Numeracy and the National Numeracy Network by Bernard L. Madison and Lynn Arthur Steen, Numeracy, Vol. 1 (2008), Issue 1, Article 2.
Abstract: The National Numeracy Network grew from heightened awareness of the complex and sophisticated nature of quantitative literacy and the resulting need for interdisciplinary attention to education for quantitative literacy in schools and colleges. This complexity and sophistication applies especially to the US where it is fueled by an agile economy and the needs of a democratic society. This paper describes the environment surrounding the National Numeracy Network’s establishment, some of its activities, and some complementary and synergistic actions by other professional societies. The paper concludes with a sample of quantitative literacy programs in colleges and universities

Pedagogical Challenges of Quantitative Literacy.  2006 ASA.  Slides 6up

Building Bridges for QL: NNN & SIGMAA QL. MAA News May 2005

What is a Course in QL?   2005 NNN Newsletter

News Math Course Description and Procedures 2005 Univ. Arkansas.  Posted on NNN website.

Quantitative Literacy Based on presentation at 2005 MAA QL SIG

Important Math Concepts for Numeracy Based on presentation at 2005 MAA

Educating for Numeracy. 2002 Notices of the American Mathematical Society

Richard Scheaffer (Past-President of the American Statistical Association in 2001)

Statistics and Quantitative Literacy from "QL: Why Numeracy Matters for Schools and Colleges"  2003 MAA Online.  Also

Quantitative Literacy and Statistics. 2001 AmStat News, Nov. 293, President's Column

Joel Best (University of Delaware): Author of "Damned Lies and Statistics" and "More Damned Lies and Statistics."

Birds -- Dead and Deadly: Why Quantitative Literacy needs to Address Social Construction  2008 Numeracy, Volume 1. Issue 1, Article 6.

Including Construction in Quantitative Literacy  2007 Midwest Sociology Society (MSS)

People Count: The Social Construction of Statistics  8/2002 ASA JSM

People Count: The Social Construction of Statistics  11/2002 Talk at Augsburg College

Although the two with the same title are similar, the latter focuses more on the future of Statistical Literacy.

Peter Holmes (Sr. Researcher, RSS Centre for Statistical Education, Nottingham Trent Univ.)

Statistical Literacy, Numeracy and the Future. Talk at Augsburg College 31 March 2003

Statistical Needs of Non-Specialists Young Workers. RSS Centre (1981)

Iddo Gal (former co-director of the Numeracy Project at the National Center for Adult Literacy)

Preparing for Diversity in Statistical Literacy  by Scott Murray and Iddo Gal, ICOTS-6 2006

Big Picture: What does 'Numeracy" Mean?  GED Items published by the Educational Testing Service

Functional demands of Statistical Literacy: Ability to read press releases from statistical agencies  IASE Berlin 2003

Expanding Conceptions of Statistical Literacy: Analysis of Products from Statistical Agencies, Statistics Educ. Research Jrnl,  2(1) 2003

Gal, I. (2002). Dispositional aspects of coping with interpretive numeracy tasks. Literacy and Numeracy Studies, 11(2), 47-61.

Numeracy Assessment Framework for Adult Literacy and Lifeskills Survey by Iddo Gal, Mieke van Groenestijn, Myrna Manly,
Mary Jane Schmitt and Dave
Tout. ALL Survey, National Center Educational Statistics, 2003

Teaching for Statistical Literacy and Services of Statistical Agencies, The American Statistician, 2003, Vol. 57 #2, pp 80-84.  Detailed review below.

  • Adults’ Statistical Literacy: Meaning Components & ResponsibilitiesInternational Statistical Review, Vol. 70, #1, April 2002, pp 1-25 "This paper concerns itself with people's ability to act as effective "data consumers" in diverse life contexts that for brevity are termed here Reading contexts.   Reading contexts should be distinguished from enquiry context where people (e.g., students, statisticians) engage in empirical investigation of actual data."  This article proposes a conceptualization of statistical literacy and describes its key components including the ability to interpret, critically evaluate, and communicate about statistical information and messages. Despite its title, this article is very relevant to statistical literacy at all levels. “It is argued that statistically literate behavior is predicated on the joint activation of five interrelated knowledge bases (literacy, statistical, mathematical, context, and critical), together with a cluster of supporting dispositions and enabling beliefs.  Educational and research implications are discussed, and responsibilities facing educators, statisticians, and other stakeholders are outlined.” (p. 1 of article). Note: Because of the importance of this article to the International Statistical Literacy Project, the ISI Permanent Office and the author have given permission to have a copy of the article available.

2000: Statistical literacy: Conceptual and instructional issues by Iddo Gal in D. Coben, J. O'Donoghue, & G. FitzSimons, (Eds.), Perspectives on Adults Learning Mathematics (pp. 135-150). London: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Gal, I. (2000). The numeracy challenge. In I. Gal (Ed.), Adult Numeracy Development: Theory, research, practice (pp. 9-31).

Monitoring Attitudes and Beliefs in Statistics Education by Gal, Ginsburg & Schau, Assessment Challenge in Stats Education 37-54 1997

Gal, I. (1999)  Conceptualizing Statistical Literacy: An Assessment Perspective.  SRTL-1

Gal, I. (1999). Links between literacy and numeracy. In D. A. Wagner, B. Street, & R. L. Venezky (Eds.), Literacy: An international handbook (pp. 227-231). Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Gal, I and J. Garfield.  "Curricular Goals and Assessment Challenges in Statistics Education The Assessment Challenge in Statistics Education

Gal, Iddo and Ashley Stoudt. "Numeracy: Becoming Literate With Numbers." Adult Learning, 9:2 (1997) 13.

Gal, I., & Baron, J. (1996). Understanding repeated simple choices. Thinking and Reasoning, 2(1), 1-18.

Gal, I., Ginsburg, L., & Schau, C. (1997). Monitoring attitudes and beliefs in statistics education. In I. Gal & J. B. Garfield (Eds.), The assessment challenge in statistics education (pp. 37-51). Amsterdam: IOS Press.

Gal, I., Mahoney, P., & Moore, S. (1992). Children's use of statistical terms. In W. Geeslin & Graham K. (Eds.), Proceedings of the 16th annual meeting of the International Group for Psychology in Mathematics Education (Vol. 3, p. 160). Durham, New Hampshire.

Jane Watson (author of Statistical Literacy at School Awards   Website

Statistical literacy in the middle school: The relationship between interest, self-efficacy and prior mathematics achievement.  Colin Carmichael, R. Callingham,

      I Hay, J. Watson.  Australian Journal of Educational & Developmental Psychology. Vol 10, 2010, pp. 83-93.

Measuring Middle School Students' Interest in Statistical literacy.  Colin Carmichael, R. Callingham, I Hay, J. Watson.  Math Ed Research Jrnl V22, N3, 11/2010.

Creating a Measure of Middle School Students' Interest in Statistical Literacy: Is it Possible?, Mathematics Education Research Journal V22, N3, Nov. 2010.

Factors Influencing the Development of Middle School Students' Interest in Statistical Literacy Colin Carmichael, R. Callingham, J. Watson, I Hay.   SERJ 2009.

Creating a Measure of Middle School Students' Interest in Statistical Literacy: Is it Possible?, Pacific Rim Objective Measurement Symposium, 2009,

          Hong Kong, pp. 1-5. ISBN 008044184-X

Which is bigger 250 tonnes or 17%: A tale of salt. Jane Watson and Kim Beswick AAMT 2009

Sample, Random and Variation: The Vocabulary of Statistical Literacy by Watson & Kelley. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education 2007/8

Statistical Literacy in Middle Schools. Jane Watson  ICOTS  2006

Measuring Statistical Literacy  (Abstract) Rosemary Callingham and Jane Watson 2005  Journal of Applied Measurement.

Statistical Literacy: From Idiosyncratic to Critical Thinking. Watson & Callingham. 2004 IASE Roundtable, 47 pages [6 levels]

The Measurement of Student's Understanding of Statistical Variation. (Abstract) Watson, Kelley, Callingham & Shaughnessy 2004

Is Statistical Literacy Relevant for Middle School?  Jane Watson  2004

The Development of Comprehension of Chance Language: Evaluation and Interpretation. J. Watson,  J. B. Moritz. School Science and Mathematics. 2/2003

The Vocabulary of Statistical Literacy.  Jane Watson and Ben Kelley  AARE 2003

Statistical Literacy: A complex hierarchical concept   Jane Watson and Rosemary Callingham  SERJ 2003 [Six levels]

Statistical Literacy at the School Level: What Should Students Know and Do?  Jane Watson  IASE 2003

Development of Understanding of sampling for statistical literacy Watson and Moritz  Jrnl. of Mathematical Behavior 2000

The Beginning of Statistical inference: Comparing Two Data Sets (Abstract) Watson and Moritz   Educational Studies in Math 1998

Assessment of Statistical Understanding in a Media Context  Jane Watson ICOTS 1998

The Need for Statistical Literacy in Australia  by Jane Watson Science News 1997

The role of statistical literacy in decisions about risk: Where to start in For the Learning of Mathematics, 18(3), 25-27.  1998

Assessing statistical literacy using the media in Gal & Garfield (Eds.) The Assessment Challenge in Stat Education (pp. 107-121). 1997

Statistical literacy: A link between mathematics and society in A. Richards, G. Gillman, K. Milton, & J. Oliver (Eds.), Flair: Forging links and integrating resources (Proceedings of the 15th Biennial Conference of the Australian Association of Mathematics Teachers Inc., pp. 12-28). Adelaide, SA: AAMT, Inc.  [1995 Hanna Neumann Memorial Lecture]. 

Conditional probability: Its place in the mathematics curriculum. Mathematics Teacher, 88, 12-17.  1995

OTHER (1995 and prior)

A model for assessing higher order thinking in statistics

Cautionary Tales: A Collection of Mathematical Essays for Teachers

Children's understanding of luck

Developmental structure in the understanding of common and decimal fractions

Probability and statistics: An overview

Professional Development in Mathematics for Teachers - Who, What, Why and How

Teacher attitudes towards chance and data

The developments of concepts associated with sampling in grades 3, 5, 7, and 9

Visual Processing During Mathematical Problem Solving

What's in a graph?

Jerry Moreno (John Carroll University)

What do M&M's, dahlias, soil erosion and data analysis across the curriculum have in common?. 2006 ASA

What defines a "Statistically Literate" citizen. 2005 USCOTS

Concepts and Methods in One Intro Stats Course. 2004 ASA

Toward a Statistically Literate Citizenry: What Statistics Everyone Should Know. ICOTS-6 2002

Statistical Literacy -- Statistics Long After School. ICOTS-5 1997

Deborah Rumsey (Ohio State University)

“Statistical Literacy: Implications for Teaching, Research, and Practice,” 2002 International Statistical Review, 70, 32–36.

Statistical Literacy as a Goal for Introductory Statistics Courses,” Journal of Statistics Education, 2002.  10(3)

Neil Lutsky and Nathan Grawe (Carleton College, US)

“Assessing Quantitative Reasoning in Student Writing: A QuIRKy Experience,” Nathan Grawe, 2008 New England Educational Assessment Network6up

Quirks of Rhetoric: a Quantitative Analysis of Quantitative Reasoning in Student Writing. Neil Lutsky  (Carleton College)

Schield Papers

Donna Stroup, Richard Goodman, Ralph Cordell and Richard Scheaffer

Teaching Statistical Principles Using Epidemiology. The American Statistician

2004 (Pay Access) From Abstract:  "we argue that epidemiology, the scientific basis for public health, provides a useful and motivating context for teaching statistical principles and methods and suggest that examples from this and other public health sciences be used in the teaching of mathematics and science courses in high school and college."

Related papers involving "Statistical Literacy":

Organizing Data in Tables and Charts: Different Criteria for Different Tasks.   Jane Miller,  Teaching Statistics (Fall, 2007)

Briggs' QL/QR Site  William Briggs, co-author of Statistical Reasoning for Life

How did Teaching Introductory Statistics get to be so Complicated ?!?  Roxy Peck, USCOTS 2005  1upWeb

Data Aggregation and Simpson's Paradox in Index Numbers  (Fee) Stan Lipovetsky & Micheal Conklin, Eur. J. of Op. Res., 172#1.  2004

Three Paradoxes  Howard Wainer, Nat. Bd of Medical Examiners.  Draft of Paper for The American Statistician 2004

Statistical Literacy -- A Kind of Numeracy by Laszlo Holka (Hungarian Central Statistical Office)

Introductory Statistics Teaching at UCLA: Overview and Proposal by Jan De Leuw and Donald Ylvisaker

Developing a Compulsory University-wide Statistical Literacy Program by Helen Carter and Catherine Milne 2000  Abstract  Conference

Teaching Statistical Literacy  by Patricia B. Cerrito 1999

Epidemiology Faces Its Limits (copy) by Gary Taubes: Science (1995: 269. pp 164-169).  Biostatistics-Wisconsin.

The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) Statement: Guidelines for Reporting Observational Studies by Erik von Elm.

Instructional Design and the Development of Statistical Literacy  Kenneth Bessant in Teaching Sociology, April 1992

Related papers at ASA JSM 2008:

Common Issues in SATS Research by Candace Schau 2008 ASA

Survey of Attitudes Toward Statistics: An Exploratory Look by Marjorie Bond 2008 ASA

Students’ Attitudes Toward Statistics: Are there differences among various majors?  by Rebecca Pierce and Molly Jameson  2008 ASA

Understanding the Difficulty in Teaching Sampling Distribution, Margin of Error and Statistical Inference by Kriska, Fulcomer and Sass 2008 ASA

Applying Resampling to Analyze the Sensitivity of a Hypothesis Test to Confounding by William Goodman 2008 ASA

Related papers at ASA JSM 2007:

Expectations for Statistical Literacy: A Survey Of College Faculty by David Kriska (Walden U.), Mark Fulcomer (Stockton) & Marcia Sass (UMD-NJ),  2007 ASA

Students’ Reasoning about Summary Measures from Histograms and Stem-and-Leaf Plots by Linda Cooper and Felice Shore (Towson University), 2007 ASA

Improving Statistical Posters by Di Cook (Iowa State University), 2007 ASA

Related papers at IASE 2007 Guimarães, Portugal.

Assess Statistical Literacy by Stephanie Budgett and Maxine Pfannkuch.  2007 IASE

Building Statistical Literacy Assessment Tools with the IASE ISLP by Juana Sanchez.  2007 IASE

Designing Open Questions for the Assessment of Conceptual Understanding by Nick Broers.  2007 IASE

Embedding Statistical Assessment within Cross-Curricular Materials by Jim Ridgway, James Nicholson and Sean McCusker 2007 IASE

Assessing Understanding of the Concept of Interaction in Analysis of Variance by Kathy Green 2007 IASE

Using Peer Assessment of Project Presentations to Develop Skills as Consumers of Statistical Information by Michelle Sisto. 2007 IASE

Doing Statistics versus Understanding Statistics by Christine Duller 2007 IASE/ISI

Related papers at ICOTS-7 2006 Brazil:

The Worth of Data: The Tale of an Experience for Promoting and Improving Statistical Literacy, Giovanni Barbieri and Paola Giacché

Related papers at ASA JSM 2006:

Expectations for Statistical Literacy: A Comparison among Professions by Kriska, Fulcomer and Sass.  2006 ASA

Related papers at ASA JSM 2005:

Matching with Multiple Control Groups, and Adjusting for Group Differences by Rubin and Stuart 2005 ASA

Direct and Indirect Effects by Judea Pearl 2005 ASA

Comments on the Papers Presented in the Session on Causal Inference with Problematic Control Groups by Gastwirth 2005 ASA

Critical Values: Connecting Ethics, Service Learning and Social Justice to Life Our World by Lesser 2005 ASA

Reflections on Training, Experience and Introductory Statistics: A Mini Survey of Tertiary Level Statistics Instructors Hassad 2005 ASA

Examining the Introductory Statistics Course for Business and Economics Through Its Textbooks by McKenzie 2005 ASA

Related papers at USCOTS 2005:

Are We Teaching the Right Material in Introductory Statistics? by Jerry Reiter.  2005 USCOTS

What defines a "Statistically Literate" citizen? by Jerry Moreno.  2005 USCOTS

Statistics in the News by E. Jacquelin Dietz.  2005 USCOTS

Related papers at ISI 55 (2005):

UIS: Measuring Statistical Literacy by Denise Lievesley, 2005 ISI

Statistics for Life: What Statistical Ideas Matter Most and Why? by Nick Fisher, 2005 ISI

Assessing statistical literacy in graduate level statistics education by Enriqueta D. Reston, 2005 ISI

Numeracy Counts in the Statistical Reasoning Equation by Therese Wilson and Helen MacGillivray, 2005 ISI

Non-specialist Users and their Information Needs: Exploratory study at US Bureau of Labor Statistics by Iddo Gal & John Bosley, 2005 ISI

The Role of Official Statistics Agencies in the Promotion of Statistical Literacy Among Students by Fredrick W H Ho, 2005 ISI

Related papers at ASA JSM 2004:

Conveying the Core Concepts by John D. McKenzie, ASA 2004

Trashball: A Logistic Regression Classroom Activity by Christopher Morell and Richard Auer, ASA 2004

Using Journal Articles in Introductory Statistics by John Turner ASA 2004

History of Science and Statistical Education: Examples from Fisherian and Pearsonian schools by Chung Ho Yu (Alex) Arizona State, ASA 2004

 Related papers at ASA JSM 2003:

Student Attitudes: The Other Important Outcome in Statistical Education by Candace Schau ASA 2003

Some Difficulties Learning Histograms by Carl Lee and Maria Meletiou-Mavrotheris ASA 2003

Teaching Introductory Statistics in the Social & Behavioral Sciences by Hassad ASA 2003

Restructuring Introductory Courses at Penn State  by Harkness, Buchanan, Heckard and Rosenberger ASA 2003

Related papers at IASE 2001:

Statistical Literacy and Statistical Competence in the New Century by David Moore IASE 2001 Slides

Statistics Literacy by Brian Phillips IASE 2001 Slides

Related papers at ISI 2001:

Statistical Dead Heat and the Mass Media  Douglas Lonnstrom (Siena College in Loudonville NY), 2001 ISI

Introductory Statistics Courses for Non-Statistics Majors at Colleges and Universities by P. K. Ito,  2001 ISI.

Larry Lesser

Donald Macnaughton (MatStat Research Consulting, Toronto Canada)

Statistical Literacy and Reasoning: American Educational Research Association, April, 2000

  • Components of Statistical Thinking by Beth Chance (Calif. Polytechnic State University)
  • Bayesian Statistics:

    Dean Brooks, President of Ekaros.

  • Practical Applications of Benford's Law for Integer Quantities  ASA 2002 JSM
  • War, Politics and Customer Loyalty: Forecasting Benford's Law  2001 Frequencies

    Edward Tufte

    Statistical Literacy Programs or Ideas




    International Association for Statistical Education

  • Statistical Literacy and the Media by Podehl ICOTS-6 2002
  • Statistics in the Classroom: Learning to Understand Societal Issues by Podehl IASE Berlin 2002
  • Teaching Economic Statistics in the Internet Era by Bregar IASE Berlin 2002

    Woodrow Wilson Foundation, National Council on Education, Quantitative Literacy

  • Reflections on Quantitative Literacy  by Lynn Steen July, 2001
  • Reflections on Quantitative Literacy (Getting To Work) by Bernie Madison MAA 7/2001
  • National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM)

  • Mathematics Necessary?  by William Dudley, March 1998 (Start on Page 2)
  • Mathematics Equals Opportunity  by Richard Riley, March 1998 (Start on Page 3)
  • Mathematics Association of America (MAA)

  • Mathematics For Business  by Richard Thompson, Arizona State University, 11/2002
  • Assessment of General Education Mathematics Courses’ Contribution to Quantitative Literacy.  By Aimee J. Ellington for MAA SAUM
  • Center for Disease Control (CDC)

    International Statistical Institute (ISI)    International Statistical Review (ISR)



    Statistical Education Research Journal (IASE)

    The American Statistician (TAS)

    2003, Vol. 57 #2

    • Statistical Literacy: How You Can Help  by Jessica Utts.   Abstract 

      Excerpts: "To me, statistical literacy has been achieved when someone not only understands a news story about a statistical study, but also knows what additional information about the study is needed before a wise decision can be made. And ultimately, the goal of achieving statistical literacy is to be able to make wise decisions when appropriate information is provided."

    • What Educated Citizens Should Know About Statistics and Probability  by Jessica Utts  Abstract 

      Excerpts: "There are of course many important topics that need to be discussed in an elementary statistics course. For this article, I have selected seven topics that I have found to be commonly misunderstood by citizens, including the journalists who present statistical studies to the public." "1. When it can be concluded that a relationship is one of cause and effect, and when it cannot, including the difference between randomized experiments and observational studies.  2. The difference between statistical significance and practical importance, especially when using large sample sizes. 3. The difference between  finding “no effect” or “no difference” and finding no statistically significant effect or difference, especially when using small  sample sizes.  4. Common sources of bias in surveys and experiments, such as poor wording of questions, volunteer response, and socially desirable answers.  5. The idea that coincidences and seemingly very improbable events are not uncommon because there are so many possibilities. 6. “Confusion of the inverse” in which a conditional probability in one direction is confused with the conditional probability in the other direction. 7. Understanding that variability is natural, and that 'normal' is not the same as 'average.'"

    • Teaching for Statistical Literacy and Services of Statistical Agencies by Iddo Gal  Abstract:  Increasing attention is given to the importance of developing statistical literacy of citizens and students. This article examines approaches to teaching for statistical literacy and identifies areas that need attention, in light of limitations on skill transfer and reliance on exemplars that illustrate problematic reports in the media. The article discusses the potential role of products of statistics agencies in education for statistical literacy. Implications for needed collaboration between educators and statistics agencies and for research are examined. Excerpts:  [1] "For instance, in a survey of more than 240 instructors of introductory statistics (Garfield 2000) less than 25% said they “frequently used” discussions of statistics in the media, and roughly half indicated they never ask students to critique news articles in classroom assessments. It seems that many instructors neither teach for statistical literacy nor assess it."  [2] Discussion: "First, it is difficult to expect students to develop statistical literacy through instruction on general principles of statistics and personal experience in data analysis, due to limitations on skill transfer, lack of familiarity with critical questions, and inattention to dispositions that support statistically literate behavior. Second, it is difficult to expect students to develop full statistical literacy through instruction that presents only negative examples for statistical reports, that is based only on brief media reports, and that does not provide models for effective or fair statistical reporting."  [3] "Given the limitations of each of the methods outlined earlier, and the inattention to assessment of statistical literacy skills (Garfield 2000), educators and statisticians should re-examine their educational expectations regarding the efficacy of current efforts to develop statistical literacy skills of students at the college or high-school levels. It also seems prudent to consider Moore’s (2001) recent call for “diminished expectations,” a proposal that instructors in introductory statistics courses cannot teach all the topics they hope to cover, given the need to teach at a pace and depth that enable students to construct their own understanding. If Moore’s call is accepted, serious attention to statistical literacy issues (in terms of both skills and dispositions) cannot be accomplished within an introductory course focused on core statistical topics, unless educators find ways to (a) address both core issues and statistical literacy issues at the same time, and (b) also assess students’ actual gains in statistical literacy skills. Otherwise, statistical literacy will remain a lofty goal that is hardly realized in regular introductory courses.  Where this is the case, separate courses focused on statistical literacy will have to be planned."

    • The Getting of Wisdom: Educating Statisticians to Enhance their Clients Numeracy  by Eric Sowey Abstract  Excerpts: "Neglect of numeracy is becoming steadily more unsupportable, particularly in a democratic society." "Enhancing statistical literacy is today a pressing issue."  "It is my impression, however, that even in developed societies formal teaching aimed expressly at enhancing statistical literacy is still a fledgling enterprise, offered only in scattered locations and to relatively few people."

    1998, Vol. 52

    • Student Projects on Statistical Literacy and the Media by Gelman and Nolan with Bautista, Men and Warmerdam.   Articles
      An important theme in an introductory statistics course is the connection between statistics and the outside world. This article describes some assignments that have been useful in getting students to learn how to gather and process information presented in the newspaper articles and scientific reports they read. We discuss two related assignments. For the first kind of assignment, students work through prepared instructional packets. Each packet contains a newspaper article that reports on a scientific study or statistical analysis, the original report on which the article was based, a worksheet with guidelines for summarizing the reported study, and a series of questions. In the second kind of assignment, each student is required to find a newspaper article themselves, track down the original report, summarize the study using our guidelines, and write a critique of the article. Here, we describe the guidelines we developed to help the student in reading the newspaper article and original source, and the procedures we used for each type of assignment. Examples of handouts and assignments appear as appendixes.

    ASA Journal of Statistical Education (JSE)

    JSE 2004 #10

    JSE 2002 #10

    JSE 2000 #8

    JSE 1999 November

    JSE 1999 July

    • Constructionism and Reductionism: Two Approaches to Problem-Solving and Their Implications for Reform of Statistics and Mathematics Curricula by Emmanuel N. Lazaridis, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center & Research Institute, University of South Florida
    • Getting What You Pay For: The Debate Over Equity in Public School Expenditures by Deborah Lynn Guber, The University of Vermont

    JSE 1999 April

    JSE 1998 July

    JSE 1998 March

    JSE 1997 November

    JSE 1997 July

    JSE 1997 March

    JSE 1996 November

    JSE 1996 July

    JSE 1996 March

    JSE 1995 July

    JSE 1995 March

    JSE 1994 November

    JSE 1994 July

    JSE 1993 November

    ASA Presidential papers:

    Jane Watson (author of Statistical Literacy at School).  Full references on papers referencing "statistical literacy" or "quantitative literacy."

    • Watson, J.M., & Kelly, B.A. (in press). The development of conditional probability reasoning. International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology.

    • Watson, J.M. (2006). Issues for statistical literacy in the middle school. In A. Rossman & B. Chance (Eds.), Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Teaching Statistics: Working cooperatively in statistics education, Salvador, Brazil. [CDRom]. Voorburg, The Netherlands: International Association for Statistical Education and the International Statistical Institute.

    • Watson, J.M. (2006). Statistical literacy at school: Growth and goals. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. ISBN 0-8085-5398-7

    • Watson, J.M., Kelly, B.A., & Izard, J.F. (2005). Statistical literacy over a decade. In P. Clarkson, A. Downton, D. Gronn, M. Horne, A. McDonough, R. Pierce, & A. Roche (Eds.), Building connections: Theory, research and practice (Proceedings of the 28th annual conference of the Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia, Melbourne, pp. 775-782). Sydney: MERGA.

    • Watson, J.M., & Callingham, R.A. (2005). Statistical literacy: From idiosyncratic to critical thinking. In G. Burrill & M. Camden (Eds.), Curricular Development in Statistics Education. International Association for Statistical Education (IASE) Roundtable, Lund, Sweden, 2004 (pp. 116-162). Voorburg, The Netherlands: International Statistical Institute

    • Watson, J.M. (2005). Assessing teachers’ knowledge for teaching quantitative literacy. Proceedings of the ICMI Third East Asian Conference on Mathematics Education. [CD ROM]. Shanghai, China.

    • Watson, J.M. (2005). Is statistical literacy relevant for middle school students? Vinculum, 42(1), 3-10.

    • Watson, J.M. (2005). Lessons from research: Students’ understanding of statistical literacy. In M. Coupland, J. Anderson, & T. Spencer (Eds.), Making mathematics vital (Proceedings of the 20th biennial conference of the Australian Association of Mathematics Teachers, Sydney, pp. 253-260). Adelaide, SA: AAMT, Inc.  ISBN 1-875900-58-6

    • Callingham, R.A., & Watson, J.M. (2005). Measuring statistical literacy. Journal of Applied Measurement, 6(1), 19-47.

    • Watson, J.M., & Shaughnessy, J.M. (2004). Proportional reasoning: Lessons from research in data and chance. Mathematics Teaching in the Middle School, 10, 104-109.

    • Watson, J.M. (2004). Quantitative literacy in the media: An arena for problem solving. Australian Mathematics Teacher, 69(1), 34-40.

    • Watson, J.M., & Kelly, B.A. (2003). The vocabulary of statistical literacy. In Educational Research, Risks, & Dilemmas: Proceedings of the joint conferences of the New Zealand Association for Research in Education and the Australian Association for Research in Education [CD-ROM]. Auckland, New Zealand, December, 2003. Available at: 

    • Watson, J.M., & Kelly, B.A. (2003). Inference from a pictograph: Statistical literacy in action. In L. Bragg, C. Campbell, G. Herbert, & J. Mousley (Eds.), Mathematics education research: Innovation, networking, opportunity (Proceedings of the 26th Annual Conference of the Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia, Geelong, pp. 720-727). Sydney, NSW: MERGA.

    • Watson, J.M., & Callingham, R.A. (2003). Statistical literacy: A complex hierarchical construct. Statistics Education Research Journal, 2(2), 3-46. 

    • Watson, J.M. (2003). Statistical literacy at the school level: What should students know and do? In Bulletin of the International Statistical Institute 54th Session Proceedings Berlin (Volume LX, Book 2, Invited Papers, Topic 49, pp. 68-71). Berlin: ISI.

    • Watson, J.M., & Moritz, J.B. (2002). Quantitative literacy for pre-service teachers via the internet. Mathematics Teacher Education and Development, 4, 43-56.

    • Watson, J.M., & Moritz, J.B. (2002). Developing concepts of sampling for statistical literacy. In J. Sowder & B. Schappelle (Eds.), Lessons learned from research (pp. 117-124). Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.

    • Watson, J.M. (2002). Discussion: Statistical literacy before adulthood. International Statistical Review, 70, 26-30.

    • Callingham, R.A., & Watson, J.M. (2002, December). Implications of differential item function in statistical literacy: Is gender still an issue? Refereed paper presented at the Measurement Special Interest Group of the Australian Association for Research in Education conference, Brisbane.

    • Watson, J.M., & Moritz, J.B. (2000). Development of understanding of sampling for statistical literacy. Journal of Mathematical Behavior, 19, 109-136.

    • Watson, J.M. (1999). The media, technology and statistical literacy for all. In Z. Usiskin (Ed.), Developments in school mathematics education around the world. Volume 4 (pp. 308-322). Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.  [Refereed text of invited address at international conference.]

    • Watson, J.M., Moritz, J.B., & Pereira-Mendoza, L. (1998). Interpreting a graph in a social context. The Mathematics Educator, 3 (1), 61-71.

    • Watson, J.M. (1998). Statistical literacy: What’s the chance? Reflections, 23(1), 6-14. [Text of invited keynote to 1997 MANSW State conference]

    • Watson, J.M. (1998). Assessment of statistical understanding in a media context. In L. Pereira-Mendoza, L.S. Kea, T.W. Kee, & W. Wong (Eds.), Statistical education – Expanding the network (Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Teaching Statistics, Vol. 2, pp. 793-799). Voorburg: International Statistical Institute.

    • Watson, J.M. (1998). The role of statistical literacy in decisions about risk: Where to start. For the Learning of Mathematics, 18(3), 25-27.

    • Watson, J.M. (1997). Assessing statistical literacy using the media. In Gal & Garfield (Eds.), The Assessment Challenge in Statistical Education (pp. 107-121).

    • Pereira-Mendoza, L., Watson, J. M., & Moritz, J. B. (1995). What's in a graph? In A. Richards, G. Gillman, K. Milton, & J. Oliver (Eds.), Flair: Forging links and integrating resources (pp. 301-307). Adelaide, SA: Australian Association of Mathematics Teachers.  Abstract: What do students really think graphs mean? Based on interviews with students from Canada, Australia and Singapore, students' interpretations of different graphs are examined, and the implications of these differing interpretations for teaching are considered. Some examples of the potential of newspapers for developing statistical ideas for primary and secondary students are included

    • Watson, J.M. (1995). Statistical literacy: A link between mathematics and society. In A. Richards, G. Gillman, K. Milton, & J. Oliver (Eds.), Flair: Forging links and integrating resources (Proceedings of the 15th Biennial Conference of the Australian Association of Mathematics Teachers Inc., pp. 12-28). Adelaide, SA: AAMT, Inc.  [1995 Hanna Neumann Memorial Lecture].

    • Watson, J.M. (1995). Conditional probability: Its place in the mathematics curriculum. Mathematics Teacher, 88, 12-17.

    Weinberg, Clarice R. (1993). Toward a Clearer Definition of Confounding [Scan].  American Journal of Epidemiology.  Vol 137, Number 1, Jan 1, 1993.

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