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 Above:  Milo Schield (PhD Rice) and Doug Zahn (PhD Harvard): both ASA Fellows; both graduates of Waverly High School (Iowa).

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Statistical Literacy Textbook


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This is the text being used as the Statistical Literacy textbook for Math1300 at the University of New Mexico.  This text was developed as a key part of the W. M. Keck Statistical Literacy Project.


In 2005, Capella University began offering Statistical Literacy on-line using this textbook. Dr. Valerie Perkins, Dean of Capella's School of Under-graduate Studies, notes, "Schield's approach to statistical literacy helps Capella students think critically while satisfying Capella's general education requirement in mathematical and logical reasoning."


Peter Holmes, Royal Statistical Society Centre for Statistical Education, said, "I am convinced that the standard first course in statistics, which focuses on getting to significance testing and confidence intervals, isn't an appropriate aim for a lot of students. I think Milo's approach to statistical literacy is much closer to what is needed by journalists, by policy makers, by those in business commerce or management and by most people in everyday life."


Statistical Literacy is closely related to numeracy, quantitative literacy/reasoning and statistical thinking/reasoning.  They all focus on concepts or techniques involving numbers in context -- typically numbers presented in the daily news.


But there are differences. Quantitative literacy/reasoning typically focuses on math topics such as rates and rates of change, percent of, graphs of change (first and second derivatives), linear and exponential rates of growth, accumulation (integral), installment loans, savings and weighted averages, indexes and condensed measures, estimation, plane geometry, graphical production and representation and probability (single and conditional).  Statistical thinking/reasoning typically focuses on statistics involving distributions and variation -- specifically random variation such as that encountered in random selection or random assignment.  Both quantitative reasoning and statistical thinking focus primarily on math problems, math techniques and math concepts. 


Statistical Literacy is quite different.  Statistical Literacy studies statistics used as evidence in everyday arguments.  As such this text may be closer to critical thinking or rhetoric than to mathematics or statistics.  This text uses the admonition, "Take CARE!" as a reminder that statistics are human constructs.  Statistical literacy studies those factors that influence the size and direction of a statistic.  Each of the four letters in CARE stand for a kind of influence on the size of a statistic: Context (comparisons, ratios, study design and confounding), Assembly (how statistics are defined and presented), Randomness (chance, margin of error and statistical significance) and Error or bias.  The bulk of the book is spent on the first two types of influence.


The goal of the text is to help readers evaluate the strengths and weaknesses in statistics that are used as evidence in everyday arguments.  These statistics include government-generated statistics: country-wide statistics (c.f., US Statistical Abstract), education statistics (c.f.,  National Assessment of Educational Progress) and health statistics (c.f., Center for Disease Control).


This text is quite different.  Instead of algebra, it uses ordinary English to describe and compare counts, measures and conditional probabilities.  It focuses on reading and interpreting statistics presented in tables and graphs.  It present a new graphical technique to show how a factor is "taken in account" or "controlled for."  It requires "hypothetical thinking" for students to imagine how things might have been defined, measured, compared or presented differently.  It requires hypothetical thinking for students to imagine plausible confounders for observed associations.


2016: Augsburg Student Evaluations of STAT 102  by Milo Schield   ASA/JSM    Course Comparison: STAT102 vs STAT 101

Schield's "Statistical Literacy 2021B" (Eighth Edition)

CONTENTS   For chapter overview, download both audio and 6up overview. Play audio while watching the overview.

Statistical Literacy Textbooks (2003-2200):  Internal Statistics

This book was based on research findings of the W. M. Keck Statistical Literacy Project.
For an overview, see Isaacson's "Statistical Literacy -- Online at Capella University."
For an overview of the conceptual design, see Schield's "Statistical Literacy and Liberal Education at Augsburg College."
For a briefing on the "Take CARE" methodology, see "Take CARE"
For a review of the technical aspects, see Schield's Statistical Literacy Curriculum Design.
For a review of difficulties in reading tables and graphs, see Schield's "Statistical Literacy Survey: Reading Tables and Graphs."
For papers on teaching confounding using the new graphical technique, see:

For papers on teaching the social construction of statistics, see:

Order Status: 
The first editions are limited distribution editions used primarily for teaching while developing the associated assignments and quizzes. The 5th edition (2011) and later are updated to go with the more than 1,000 Moodle exercises that are available to teachers that use this book.

Statistical Literacy at Augsburg College: GST 200

Over a Hundred Topics (Over a Thousand Problems):
As Lynn Steen noted, "concept" QL courses tend to be light on exercises.  Over 130 homework topics involving right-wrong exercises have been identified for this book.  More than a hundred of these topics have been implemented in Moodle as multiple choice quizzes with over a thousand problems.  Having right-wrong exercises online gives students immediate feedback, eliminates the need for instructor grading, minimizes the class time needed to review these topics, and allows the instructor to see which kinds of exercises are giving the students the most difficulty. Here is a current list of the class-room tested, Moodle-based, right-wrong exercises.

Web-based Part-Whole Drill Programs:
Videos describing: (1) the part-whole reading program,  (2) the part-whole writing program.

The part-whole reading drill program has 186 problems. 131 descriptions, 43 common-part comparisons and 12 distinct part comparisons.
The writing drill program currently has 301 problems:  6 chance-related, 266 tables, 14 bar graphs and 15 pie charts.
The most recent upgrade was to add chance/probability grammar to both programs.

Odysseys2Sense: a game of lively discourse
Odysseys (a unique web forum) is used to facilitate critical thinking.   See this under Statistical Literacy tools.  Fall 2012 Challenges
Student survey:  Spring 2013   Fall 2013.  Advice to reviewers:  References    Huemer


Dr. Milo Schield is Director of the W. M. Keck Statistical Literacy Project and a professor in Business Administration at Augsburg College.  He received his Ph.D. from Rice University. 


In 2001, the W. M. Keck Foundation awarded Augsburg College a grant to develop statistical literacy "as an interdisciplinary curriculum in the liberal arts." In 2004, the AACU's Peer Review magazine featured Milo's essay, "Statistical Literacy and Liberal education at Augsburg College."


"A small educational movement advocating statistical literacy has emerged. Professor Milo Schield, Director of the W. M. Keck Statistical Literacy Project, at Augsburg College in Minneapolis, is the movement's leading voice." Dr. Joel Best, author of More Damned Lies and Statistics.

Statistical Literacy Textbook (2016)

Textbook design:


As of 2020, Dr. Milo Schield is:                           Augsburg Home-page1    Home-page2

  • Professor Emeritus of Business Administration at Augsburg College.   Statistical Literacy at Augsburg (2016

  • Fellow of the American Statistical Association

  • Elected member of the International Statistical Institute (ISI 2011)

  • US Representative of the International Statistical Literacy Project (ISLP)

  • Statistical Literacy Coordinator for the Mathematics-Statistics Department, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque

  • Editor of

  • Past-President of the National Numeracy Network (NNN)

  • Past-President of the Twin Cities Chapter of the American Statistical Association (ASA)

  • Past-Director of the W. M. Keck Statistical Literacy Project (2001-2005)

Schield papers chronologically  CV   Intros (2016, 2012International Talks by Location   JSM Sessions

2018: Schield ASA Fellow: Notification Nomination  CV  Citations 2/2018   Letters Bailer, Kaplan, Weisberg, Wild & Witmer

2017: Schield Citations 11/2017     Classify Statements:  Survey    Schield Claims   KEY490F Student Survey Results

2016: SERJ        2016 Augsburg News       Research Gate Citations 3/2016         Research-Gate Summary 6/2016

2015: Wiley Textbook proposal: "Practical Statistics for Professionals"   RSS Proposal.

2015: NNN Candidate for Vice President    ASA Section on Statistical Education Board Member (at large) CV

2015: USCOTS Lifetime Achievement award.  Nomination letter    Complete packet

2015: Judea Pearl Causality Prize.  Nomination packet.

2015: USCOTS Schield AIDS video  Statisticians make life better  960x720 (3.5mb).   Text     Slides: 6up  1up


2001: W. M. Keck Statistical Literacy Grant to Augsburg College (2001-2005):

Goal: "To Develop Statistical Literacy as an Interdisciplinary Curriculum in the Liberal Arts"

Principal Investigator: Milo Schield    W. M. Keck Foundation Goals poster (2002)      Statistical Literacy Header (2001)

Other Materials:
2A.  The W. M. Keck Statistical Literacy Course at Augsburg: An Overview


Comments by Hulsizer and Woolf (2009) on page 63 in A Guide to Teaching Statistics: Innovations and Best Practices."

Milo Schield (2005), Director of the W. M. Keck Statistical Literacy Project, argued that instructors have the responsibility to not only teach basic statistical competence, but to become "evangelists" for statistical literacy.  He argued that we should develop introductory statistics courses that attract students because students find the material enjoyable and beneficial.  To foster statistical literacy, teachers and students must discuss and argue everyday, real-world examples of statistics from the media, news, and journal studies.  As a results, the ultimate course evaluation should consist of measuring students' "appreciation for the value of statistics in everyday life" (p 4.)  
Schield, M (2005). Statistical Literacy: An Evangelical Calling for Statistical Educators, 2005 ISI. See

2006 Augsburg NOW: Business Department is International



2018: Milo Schield selected as a Fellow by the American Statistical Association:
At the Joint Statistical Meeting in Vancouver, Dr. Milo Schield was selected to be a Fellow by the American Statistical Association.  This high honor is limited to 0.3% of the membership each year (roughly 60 out of 18,000).  The citation reads as follows: "For leadership in, and service to, the field of statistics education; for outstanding contribution to increase statistical literacy among consumers and decision makers in the wider society; and for tireless efforts in promoting quantitative literacy internationally -- the American Statistical Association (founded in 1839) awards the Honorary Rank of Fellow to Milo Schield, Augsburg University."  Signed by Paul Gallo, Committee Chair, July 31, 2018.   My overwhelming thanks to Carl Lee (right) who finally convinced me that I might be a worthy candidate.  And to my supporters (below).

Milo Schield                                          Certificate                                          ASA President and Milo                               Milo and Carl Lee (Fellow Nominator)


Schield Nominated by Carl Lee.  CV  Citations  Supporting letters by John Bailer, Danny Kaplan, Herb Weisberg, Chris Wild and Jeff WitmerCertificate
StatEd Fellows (Tintle, Robach & Schield)             Schield and Jessica Utts                               Don MacNaughton & Schield (Since 1996)       Schield & DeVeaux


2011: Milo Schield installed as an elected member of the ISI:
At the 21st conference of the International Statistical Institute (ISI), Dr. Milo Schield was elected as one of 56 new members.  At the inaugural reception in Dublin Ireland, Milo is shown with Ron Wasserstein (ASA Director), with Dr. A. John Bailar (ISI Membership Elections Committee chair) and with Cynthia Schield (his wife).  



Schield and Colleagues:
Danny Kaplan and Schield (Nov 14, 2018).         Schield & John Knight (2001)       President Frame, Peter Holmes & Schield (2003-03/31)



Iddo Gal and Milo (2022-0511: Haifa)


Social/Civic Statistics:

Gal, Iddo (2022).  What Educators Should Know about Teaching Civic Statistics. IASE Workshop Slides  3/2022.

Murray, Charles (2022).  The Immortal Sowell.  Claremont Review Winter 2021-22.


Conceptual Literacy and Induction:

Schield, Milo (2004): Resolving Three Key Problems in the Humanities.  New Directions in the Humanities, Prato Italy.

Schield, Milo (2005). Making Science a Core Liberal Art for the 21st Century. Project Kaleidoscope (PKAL)

Schield, Milo (2008). Proposal for the Batalden Faculty Scholar Program at Augsburg College.   Internal memo.

Schield, Milo (2009): Promoting Objectivity in Science and Ethics, 6up ;   Statistical Literacy & Liberal Education 6up.   FreeMinds Las Vegas.

   Audio of this talk at 2009 FreeMinds by Schield: Track1, Track2, Track3, Track4, Track5, Track6.

Schield, Milo (2016): Excerpts from "What Should [College] Graduates Know? by Nickolas Lemann, Columbia Dean Emeritus.
Schield, Milo (2010): Seminar.  Part 1:  Induction in Science 6up    Part 2: Young-Earth Creationism 6up   Part 3: Induction in Philosophy 

Schield, Milo (2014): Critical Thinking: Present, Past & Future.  St. Paul Critical Thinking Club.  CTC1 slides    CTC2 slides

Schield, Milo (1993): Summary of Lewis Carroll's Symbolic Logic (1896).

Schield, Milo (1993): Analysis of Consciousness.  Augsburg Philosophy Seminar.

Schield, Milo (1991): Summary  of Fisher-Houde Handbook of Logic (1954).


Induction Revisited: Recommended readings:   Induction-Aristotle-Revisited (w Schield + w/o Harriman)



Epistemology/Concepts and Mathematics


Augsburg College:

2015: Augsburg's Above-Average Value-Added Education, Faculty Meeting Augsburg College   PPTX

2008: Statistical Literacy (GST 200) as a QR "Quantitative Applications" (QA) Course with project, 2008 Augsburg College

2007: Statistical Literacy (GST 200) as a QR "Quantitative foundations" (QF) Course, 2007 Augsburg College

2000: Application for Promotion.  Augsburg College

2000: Proposal for a Business Leadership concentration in the Master of Arts in Leadership program

1999: Sabbatical Application.  Augsburg College

1997: Philosophical Issues in Statistical Inference.  Augsburg College.  11/2007

  $300 for Online course


Space Physics:

1968: PhD Dissertation: The Configuration of Geomagnetic Field Lines above the Auroral Zones, Rice University. Alexander Dessler, Advisor

1969: Pressure Balance Between Solar Wind and Magnetosphere.  Journal of Geophysical Research. Vol 74, No 5. p 1275-1286. Correction.

1969: A Source for Field-Aligned Currents at Auroral Latitudes. M. Schield, J. W. Freeman and A. Dessler. JGR Vol 74 No 1. p. 247-256

1970: Electron Observations between Inner-Edge of the Plasma Sheet & the Magnetosphere. M. Schield & L. Frank. JGR 75,128. 5401-5414

Personal: Performing, Family and Teachers

Summary: 2020-SchieldBantam-Wilbur-Milo-Links

PERFORMING Alive & Kicking

2018 Flashback.   Cynthia: Marilyn Monroe; Hey Good Lookin.     Milo: Giant Sequoias; Diamonds are a Girl's Best Friend. 

2017 Unsung Heroes  Milo voice-text: The Little Engine that Could.   Cynthia Thank you for Being A Friend (Medley).

2016 The Sixties.      Cynthia voice, Feeling Groovy.    Milo: voice  I can't Get No SatisfactionMilo & Cynthia Schield 2016 performance.

2015 Winds of Change.  Cynthia: Voice, Nine to Five (chorus).   Milo: Voice, When I was Seventeen.   Prescott Story

2014 Making History. Cynthia: Voice, Somewhere Over the Rainbow.    Milo: AIDs story (audio), Sorry, I Couldn't Tell You

     Prescott Journal article:  A&K:  Prescott Singing Coach Trains Two for Bloomington Center Production (pdf)  
2013 Flashback

2012 Look on the Bright Side.  Cynthia Voice   Love Will Keep Us Together.    Milo: Voice,
Alive & Kickin show:  Cast   2011 Minn. State Capital2011 Always Look on Bright Side. 
    2012 Love is Alive Trailer #1.      2012 Love is Alive Trailer #2.
    2012 Star Tribune Grace Royden Review.      2012 Star Tribune Pictures: Cynthia singing.

2011: Cynthia Voice Song: Send in the Clowns 3/05;  High Hopes 9/04

2010: Cynthia Voice Song: Just You Wait 9/21

2009: Cynthia Voice Song: Somewhere Over the Rainbow.


2007: Cynthia Voice

2006: Cynthia: Send in the Clowns.


SCHIELD BANTAM: Wilbur and Vern Schield:  Links 2020 overview


Wilbur Schield

Eileen Schield



Brochure:  Chronicles of Fred and Emma Schield’s Family: Focus on Wilbur and Vern Schield and Schield Bantam Co   1997






Pedigree and geography: Thanks to Michael Schield.


AT Rowe:


Ida Byrd Rowe (AT Rowe's second wife)


Clyde E. Rowe books: Obit   (AT's brother)


Robert Clyde Mong RIP (1930-2018): Eulogy and Service.   AT Rowe's grandson; Olive Rowe's son.



Dana Arndt RIP (2018)    Donald Wurdinger RIP (2020). Dean Schield RIP (1936-2021)    Jim Urbach RIP (2002)

Eulogy for Bob Kuhn (2019)   Cyrano Excerpt for Bob Kuhn's Celebration of Life (2019)     Louis Frank (2014) Univ. Iowa Obituary

Cynthia ACBL Life Master (2018);  Bronze-Life (2020).   Prokop Schield (2018): Excelled Cyber Security  Tom Burnham (2018) RIP Remembrance

Flickinger (Waverly, Iowa math teacher)      AA: Let's Keep it Simple by Bob Hickle (1980, Waverly, Iowa)  2012 Ted Cary Obituary

Pedigree: Cynthia Kingston-Schield 1940-Now      Sarah Stats 1835-1895     Jim Mango (1950X pilot picture)   Elliot's bike: 9/22/2018   

Cynthia Schield WF Signature       Passports (Milo&Cynthia)

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This site was last updated 11/18/22